Symptoms of Molar pregnancy
Molar pregnancy is a rare type of pregnancy also known as gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a hydatidiform mole, or just a mole. The rate of such a pregnancy is 1 in 1000 normal pregnancies.
Molar pregnancy occurs when errors in the fertilization process take place and abnormal tissues in the uterus form and begin growing. This abnormal composition of chromosomes resembles at the beginning with a group of cells, almost like a grape.
Doctors consider that a molar pregnancy can be complete or partial. To the complete molar pregnancy is referred to when only the placenta is in the uterus and there is no fetus. The placenta will keep on growing and will produce hormones that are usually produced during a normal pregnancy. Blood tests might show that the woman is pregnant but at the ultrasound exam the difference between a normal pregnancy and the molar pregnancy will be seen. The doctor will see the placenta but will observe that there is no baby.
The partial molar pregnancy contains a placenta and a fetus but the fetus has usually severe defects that will not allow him to live. In most of the cases the placenta will develop fast and will manage to overcome the fetus. There is a rare possibility in which a twin pregnancy can be considered a molar pregnancy. This is the case when one of the babies is normal and the other will stop from its normal evolution and becomes a mole. It is a sad event for the pregnant mother because in the end the normal fetus will be defeated by the mole and nothing can be done to stop that.
Most women are devastated after having a molar pregnancy and they should be counseled or at least have some moral support from family and friends. After seeing that pregnancy tests are positive most women start building dreams about the baby they will have and finding out that their pregnancy is false and they also have to bare a curette done is not easy to accept by them.
Women having a molar pregnancy can present vaginal bleedings and sometimes an extreme uterine enlargement even though they are only in the first pregnancy trimester. Pregnancy induced hypertension is also possible to occur in a quarter of the cases. Hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism are also some signs that might indicate the presence of a molar pregnancy. In the blood the level of HCG is elevated. Only the ultrasound exam could clear all doubts about a possible molar pregnancy.
In some cases a miscarriage will end the molar pregnancy otherwise the gynecologist will have to perform a curette. Sometimes the molar pregnancy is not totally removed and will continue to grow and might even have a cancerous type threat. The confirmation that a molar pregnancy has been totally removed is given by the level of HCG in the blood and urine that has to decrease after the curry. HCG measurements are needed because the abnormal tissue is generally producing HCG so the presence of HCG can be considered a clue that the molar pregnancy has not been totally removed.
Women can have another pregnancy but if they have suffered a molar pregnancy recently should postpone getting pregnant again for about 12 months. There is a risk of 1-2% of having another molar pregnancy after having one before.